Oriental carpets, particularly those of Persia have been always known.
The finest carpets in museums all over the world are usual Persian
Carpets woven by Iranians. These Carpets reveal Iranian's mastery of
the art and craft of carpet weaving. So let discuss the Persian carpet.
Qali, according to Moein lexicon and professor Pope's a survey of
Persian art comes from the name of and Armenian city, Qaliqala,
where carpet weaving was popular. The art of carpet weaving in Iran
not only reflected the Iranian taste for beat in the course of thousands
of years, but it also maintained in link with the Iranian's material and
spiritual needs. It in fact reflects the living conditions and cultural
status of the people who lived in the Iranian plateau as well as the
land's climatic conditions, botanical resources, geographical conditions
and the attributes of nomadic life. the roots of the art of carpet
weaving must be in fact looked for in nomadic life before the fine art
found its way to the villages and cities. Iranian nomads have used the
wool of their abundant live stock and the dyes made form the variety
of botanical resources in the area for weaving beautiful carpets to
cover and decorate the floor and other parts of their tents. They not
only had everyday usage, but they were regarded objects of art from
the very beginning carpets, Kelims, horse blankets, pack saddles and
tent ribbons were among the fine thing ancient Iranian used to weave.
Every carpet consists of strings of weft and thousands of Persian or Turkish knots that constitute the carpet's
nap. Carpet is made with animal or botanical fabrics. In other words the material that make the carpet are cotton,
wool and silk, The strings of warp and weft are usually made of cotton and sometimes wool and seldom silk. The
same are used for making the nap of the carpet. after that, wooden frame is installed either vertically of
horizontally in which the vertical strings are placed before beginning to weave the carpet.
It is at this stage that the weaver comes with balls of dyed wool or cotton and the design for making the carpet.
Unlike the nomadic weaver, other artist usually use a designed pattern for weaving the carpet. What redoubles
the beauty of a carpet is its design which is created by putting together thousands of pieces of strings of dyed
wool and the knots that are may by them. After every few of knots, between one to three wefts are passed
through warps and leveled with a heavy pressing device.
Iranian designers and artists have always got inspiration from nature for creating their eternal works of art. The
constituent parts of the design of every carpet are the design of the main part and that of the margins. The
margins make a frame Sorrounds the main body of the carpet. It usually has three parts. The main margin's
designs is determined by the size and pattern of the carpet. There are tow other narrower margins that decorate
the main margin.
Designs may be generally catergorized into two revolving and broken forms. The revolving designs are made of
curved lines while the broken ones are made of direct lines. The broken designs which are simple and there is
no need to draw them on the paper are of more interest to peasant and nomadic weavers revolving designs on
other hand must be drawn on check paper to be used by the weavers.
The most well known carpet designs are the Triangular Citron, the Altar, Vase, Hunting Place, Framed, Tree,
Floral, Shah Abbas, Arabesque, Kings and Noblemen, the Fish Design and Four Seasons (Heart).
In Common with looms, tools and other equipment, thematerials used in carpet - making have changed little
hair . The pile too continues to be of either wool or silk, although cotton is occasionally used.
Wool is the most basic material used in carpet production. For centuries, nomadic weavers have used wool
exclusively to make their rugs - the warp, weft and pile are all woollen.
Nomads are extremely knowledgeable about their flocks and are expert at choosing the best wool for rug -
weaving : wool from the sheep's neck and shoulders is ideal for knotting carpet. If the sheep are healthy
and pasture is abundant their fleeces will be good; while in time of drought, wool quality will suffer.
Rugs made by the Belouch, from Persia, and the Turkomans often have a lustrous, silky pile of superb
quality, while the wool found on a Persian Tabriz or Hamadan may be of inferior quality.
In Persia, rugs and carpets piled with good, soft wool are often refered to as "Kurk", a term widely used
to describe Kashan rugs.
Wool of secondary quality is used for the warps and wefts of many village and nomadic weavings.
Today, cotton is almost universally favoured by carpet producers for making both the warps and wefts, although
this has been used for centuries in many rug-weaving areas.
The advantages of using cotton are two-fold. First it is stronger than wool,so warps or wefts madeof cotton are
less likely to break. Second, the tension is evenly held on a loom with cotton warps, thus making it easier to
produce a regularly shaped rug. Occasionally cotton is used in the pile of a rug. The Bakhtiyari tribe (form Persia) highlight small areas in undyed white cotton pile, and the Shahsavan (also from Persia) use cotton in
Silk, the most expensive material from which a rug or
carpet can be made can be used for both the foundation
and pile, In common with wool, silk varies greatly in
quality When used for warps it should be fine and strong,
and if the warps are closely packed, it is possible to
produce weavings of clear design and superb quality.
Perhaps the best-known examples of a carpet constructed
on silk warps are the exquisite Tabriz carpets. Rugs or
carpets with a silk pile can have wonderful glossy sheen
and feel. However, when silk piled weavings are used on
the floor, they may become dirty rapidly and are difficult
to clean, and are more suitably used as wall - hangings.
Having gathered the raw materials, the dyer prepares the wool by boiling it with a mordant (a type of fixative,
Alternatively, the dye matter can be mixed with a mordant as part of the dyeing process. Irrespective of which
method is used, water is added and a jar or vat is then heated over a fire. Different mordants produce different
tones of color when they are immersed with the same dye matter.
Deeper shades require several immersions of the wool, while the external temperature is a major factor in
determining the final tone. Instead of the above procedure, the fermentation process can be followed, where the
preparation is sealed in large jars and left in strong sunlight for up to eight weeks. the vat process, however, is
quicker and more reliable as the temperature can be controlled more easily.
Different sections of carpet are described below .
Raj = The number of knots in 7 centimeter of carpet.
Example : |<..............................>| The Raj is 30