Index :




Oriental carpets, particularly those of Persia have been always known.

The finest carpets in  museums  all over  the  world  are  usual  Persian 

Carpets woven by Iranians. These Carpets reveal Iranian's mastery of 

the art and craft of carpet weaving. So let discuss the Persian carpet. 

Qali,  according  to  Moein  lexicon and  professor  Pope's  a  survey of 

Persian  art  comes  from  the  name  of and  Armenian  city,  Qaliqala,  

where carpet  weaving  was popular. The art of carpet  weaving in  Iran

not only reflected the Iranian  taste for beat in the course of thousands

of years, but it also maintained  in link with the  Iranian's  material and

spiritual  needs.  It  in  fact  reflects  the  living  conditions and cultural  

status of the people  who lived  in  the Iranian  plateau  as  well  as  the  

land's climatic conditions, botanical resources, geographical conditions

and  the  attributes  of  nomadic  life.  the  roots  of   the  art  of  carpet

weaving must  be in fact  looked for in  nomadic life before the fine art 

found  its way  to the villages and cities. Iranian nomads have used the

wool of  their abundant live stock and  the dyes  made form the variety 

of  botanical  resources  in the  area  for  weaving  beautiful  carpets to 

cover and  decorate the  floor and  other parts of  their tents. They not 

only had everyday usage, but  they  were regarded objects  of art from

the very  beginning carpets, Kelims, horse blankets, pack saddles and  

tent ribbons were among the fine thing ancient Iranian used to weave.

Every carpet consists of strings of  weft and  thousands of  Persian or  Turkish  knots that constitute the carpet's

nap. Carpet is made with animal or botanical fabrics. In other words the material that make the carpet are cotton, 

wool and silk, The strings of warp and weft are usually made of cotton and sometimes wool  and seldom silk. The

same are  used  for  making  the  nap  of  the carpet. after that,  wooden  frame  is  installed  either  vertically  of 

horizontally in which the vertical strings are placed before beginning to weave the carpet. 

It is at this stage  that the weaver comes with balls of  dyed  wool or cotton and the design for making the carpet.

Unlike the  nomadic  weaver, other artist usually use a designed pattern for weaving the carpet. What redoubles 

the beauty of a carpet is its design which is  created by  putting  together  thousands of pieces of  strings of dyed 

wool  and the knots that are  may  by  them.  After  every  few of  knots,  between one to three  wefts are passed

through warps and leveled with a heavy pressing device.

Iranian designers and artists have always got inspiration from nature for creating their eternal works of art. The

constituent  parts of  the design of every carpet are  the design  of  the  main  part and  that of the  margins. The

margins  make a frame  Sorrounds  the  main  body of  the  carpet. It usually has three parts. The main margin's

designs is determined by the size and pattern of the carpet. There are tow other narrower margins that decorate

the main margin.

Designs may be generally catergorized into two revolving and broken forms. The revolving designs are made of

curved  lines  while the broken ones are made of direct lines. The broken  designs  which are simple and there is

 no  need  to  draw them on the paper are of more interest to peasant and nomadic weavers revolving designs on 

other hand must be drawn on check paper to be used by the weavers. 

The most well known carpet designs are the  Triangular Citron, the Altar,  Vase,  Hunting Place,  Framed, Tree,

Floral, Shah Abbas, Arabesque, Kings and Noblemen, the Fish Design and Four Seasons (Heart).   



Carpet's Purview

 In Common  with looms,  tools  and  other equipment,  thematerials  used  in  carpet - making have changed little 

 over the centuries. Warps and wefts are still made from traditional materials, such as cottonwoolsilk  or goat 

 hair . The pile too continues to be of either wool or silk, although cotton is occasionally used.




 Wool  is  the  most  basic  material  used  in  carpet  production. For centuries, nomadic weavers have used wool

 exclusively to make their rugs - the warp, weft and pile are all woollen.

 Nomads are  extremely  knowledgeable  about  their  flocks  and  are  expert at choosing  the best wool for rug -

 weaving  :  wool  from  the sheep's  neck  and shoulders  is  ideal  for  knotting  carpet. If  the sheep are healthy

 and pasture is abundant their fleeces will be good; while in time of drought, wool quality will suffer.

 Rugs  made  by the  Belouch,  from Persia,  and  the Turkomans  often  have  a  lustrous,  silky  pile  of  superb 

 quality,  while  the  wool  found  on  a  Persian Tabriz  or  Hamadan may be of inferior quality.

 In  Persia,  rugs  and  carpets  piled  with  good,  soft  wool  are  often refered to as "Kurk", a term widely used

 to  describe  Kashan  rugs.

 Wool  of  secondary  quality  is  used  for  the  warps  and  wefts  of  many  village  and  nomadic  weavings. 






Today, cotton is almost universally favoured by carpet producers for making both the warps and wefts, although

 this has been used for centuries in many rug-weaving areas.

 The advantages of using cotton are two-fold.  First it is stronger than  wool,so warps or wefts madeof cotton  are

 less likely to break.  Second,  the tension is evenly held on a  loom  with cotton warps,  thus  making  it easier to

produce  a  regularly  shaped rug.  Occasionally  cotton  is  used in the pile of a rug. The Bakhtiyari  tribe  (form Persia) highlight small areas in undyed white cotton  pile,  and  the  Shahsavan  (also from Persia)  use cotton  in 

their  soumakhs.  







 Silk,  the  most  expensive  material  from  which  a rug or

 carpet  can  be  made can be  used for both the foundation

 and  pile,  In  common  with  wool,  silk  varies  greatly  in

 quality When used  for warps it should be fine and strong,

 and  if  the  warps  are  closely  packed,  it  is  possible to

 produce weavings of clear design and superb quality.

 Perhaps the best-known examples of a carpet constructed

 on  silk  warps  are  the exquisite Tabriz  carpets. Rugs or

 carpets  with a  silk  pile can have wonderful glossy sheen

 and feel. However, when silk  piled  weavings are used on

 the  floor, they may become dirty  rapidly and are difficult

 to clean, and are more suitably used as wall - hangings.







 Having gathered the raw materials,   the dyer prepares the wool by boiling it with a mordant (a type of fixative,

 generally alum).

 Alternatively,  the dye matter can be mixed with a mordant as part of the dyeing process. Irrespective of which

 method is used, water is added and a jar or vat is then heated over a fire. Different mordants  produce different

 tones of color when they are immersed with the same dye matter.

 Deeper  shades  require  several  immersions  of  the  wool, while the  external temperature is a major factor in

 determining the final tone. Instead of the above procedure, the fermentation process can be followed, where the

 preparation  is sealed in large  jars and left in strong sunlight for up to eight weeks. the vat process, however, is

 quicker and more reliable as the temperature can be controlled more easily.



Composition of Carpet

Different sections of carpet are described below .




Raj = The number of knots in 7 centimeter of carpet.

              Example :     |<..............................>|  The Raj  is 30 

                                                 7 Cm